The IC chip (Integrated Circuit integrated circuit) is an integrated circuit formed by a large number of microelectronic components (transistors, resistors, capacitors, etc.) on a plastic substrate to make a chip. Almost all chips seen today can be called IC chips.
An integrated circuit is a miniature electronic device or component. A certain process is used to interconnect the transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, inductors and other components required in a circuit to form a small or a few small pieces of semiconductor wafer or dielectric substrate and then packaged in a tube. Inside the shell, it becomes a micro-structure with the required circuit functions; all of these elements have been structurally integrated, making electronic components a big step toward miniaturization, low power consumption, and high reliability. It is represented by the letter "IC" in the circuit. The inventors of the integrated circuit are Jack Kilby (silicon-based integrated circuit) and Robert Neues (based on silicon-based integrated circuits). Most of today's semiconductor industry applications are silicon-based integrated circuits.
First, the types of integrated circuits are generally classified by the number of electronic components including transistors:
SSI (small integrated circuit), the number of transistors 10 to 100;
MSI (medium-type integrated circuit), the number of transistors 100 ~ 1000;
LSI (large-scale integrated circuit), the number of transistors 1000 ~ 100000;
VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit), with more than 100,000 transistors.
Second, according to functional structure classification: Integrated circuits according to their different functions, structures, can be divided into analog and digital integrated circuits two major categories.
Third, according to the production process classification: Integrated circuits by the production process can be divided into semiconductor integrated circuits and membrane integrated circuits. Membrane integrated circuits are also classified into thick film integrated circuits and thin film integrated circuits.
Fourth, according to the different types of conductive classification: integrated circuits according to the type of conductivity can be divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits. The manufacturing process of bipolar ICs is complex and consumes large power. Representative ICs are TTL, ECL, HTL, LST-TL, and STTL. The manufacturing process of a unipolar integrated circuit is simple, and the power consumption is also low, and it is easy to make a large-scale integrated circuit. The representative integrated circuits are CMOS, NMOS, PMOS, and the like.
V. Classification by Application: Integrated circuits can be classified into TV-use integrated circuits according to applications. Integrated circuits for audio, integrated circuits for video players, integrated circuits for video recorders, integrated circuits for computers (microcomputers), integrated circuits for keyboards, integrated circuits for communications, integrated circuits for cameras, integrated circuits for remote control, integrated circuits for speech, integrated circuits for alarms Circuits and various application-specific integrated circuits. .